Within one lifetime, Esther Slap-Sammes, a 74 year old woman who lived in the neighborhood where we now live, was forcibly taken from her home by an occupying army, sent to a concentration camp, and murdered there. The German Army officially capitulated on May 5, 1945, 3 months after Esther was killed. We do not know when Esther was captured. All over Amsterdam there are brass plaques like these in the sidewalk reminding us of what happened. It remains almost inconceivable that other Europeans could have done this and claimed that it was right while they were doing it, except that we know it happened. I don't think humanity has progressed much since then.